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2020 National Tour Guide Basic Test Guide Exam: Chinese Classical Gardens

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    [Abstract] The 2020 guide tour qualification examination time has been determined to be November 14. Candidates need to hurry up to review it. The editor of the Global Network School Guide Guide Channel has compiled the test sites for the 2020 Guide Guide Examination "National Basic Knowledge of Guides": "Chinese Classical Gardens", I hope to help you review.

    2020 National Tour Guide Basic Test Guide Exam: Chinese Classical Gardens

    1.The origin and development of ancient Chinese gardens;

    The Shang and Zhou Dynasties: Features: The initial gardening stage. The original form was 囿.

    Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period: Features: There are groups of scenery in the garden.

    Qin and Han Dynasties: Palace palaces dominated by palace rooms appeared. Wei Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties: The garden style turned to advocating nature. Tang and Song Dynasties: The garden reached its mature stage. Ming and Qing Dynasties: The garden entered a stage of intensive development.

    2. Characteristics of Chinese ancient gardens:

    1) The art of gardening, natural teaching: A. The overall layout and combination should be natural.

    B. The combination of imagery of each landscape element must conform to the laws of nature.

    C, in line with the laws of nature.

    2) Separate the space and blend in with nature.

    3) Garden architecture conforms to nature.

    4) Tree flowers, expressing nature.

    3. Classification of ancient Chinese gardens:

    1) According to the identity of the occupants: A. Royal garden: its characteristics are: large-scale, real mountains and water, beautiful architectural colors in the garden, tall buildings; famous gardens: Beijing's Summer Palace and Beihai Park;

    B. Private gardens: Features are: small scale, commonly used rockery and artificial water, small and exquisite buildings, light and elegant colors; well-known gardens include: King's Palace in Beijing, Humble Administrator's Garden in Suzhou, and a garden in Yangzhou.

    2) According to the geographical location of the garden: A. Northern types: Features: Large range, magnificent architecture, natural conditions are not as good as those in the south, and rough style. Famous gardens include: the Summer Palace in Beijing, Chengde Mountain Resort, etc .;

    B. Jiangnan type: Features: small range, bright and beautiful, simple and simple, deep twists and turns, good natural conditions. Slightly cramped. Famous gardens include Wuxi Wuchangchang Garden in Jiangsu and Yuyuan Garden in Shanghai.

    C. Lingnan type: Features: With tropical scenery, the buildings are tall and spacious. The natural conditions are better than those in the north and the south. Famous gardens are: Qingxuan Garden in Shunde, Guangdong, and Ke Garden in Dongguan.

    4. The components of Lei Fenglin in ancient China:

    1) Mountain

    A. Qin and Western Han Dynasties: Features: Beginning artificial orogeny, symbolizing the East China Sea God Mountain;

    B. Eastern Han Dynasty: Began to imitate natural landscapes.

    C, Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties: Freestyle mountain.

    D. Tang and Song Dynasties: Pay more attention to Dieshan art.

    E. Ming and Qing Dynasties: Ming Dynasty's orogenic art was more mature and popular, and Qing Dynasty's orogenic technology was more developed and popular.

    2) water

    Water management method: A. Cover: Method: Use the building and greening to cover the tortuous pond bank. Role: Break the sight of the shore

    Limitations, resulting in the boundless visual impression of pool water.

    B. Separation: Practice: build embankment in water or bridge over water. Role: Increase the depth of field and space level to make the water surface feel deep.

    C. Break: Practice: Use rough stones as shore, plant fine bamboo, wild rattan, etc. Role: Adding wild mountain wind.

    3) Plant

    Tree selection criteria: beautiful, beautiful, and fragrant.

    The symbolic meaning of plants:

    Bamboo: The character is elegant and elegant. Juniper: Strong and longevity. Orchid: Secluded Hermit.

    Lotus: Clean and flawless. Magnolia, peony, osmanthus: Ronghua rich. Pomegranate: many children and grandchildren. Lagerstroemia indica: Senior official Hou Lu.

    4) animals

    There are mainly: cranes, badgers, goldfish, deer and so on.

    5) Architecture

    There are:

    Halls, such as Yuanxiang Hall in Humble Administrator's Garden.

    A pavilion, such as the Buddha's Pavilion at Beijing Yi.

    Study room fast, such as Wufeng Xianguan in Suzhou Lingering Garden.

    House, such as the Furong House in Humble Administrator's Garden, Suzhou.

    Xuan, such as Zhuwai Yizhixuan in Suzhou Master of the Nets.

    Alas, such as Xiangzhou in Humble Administrator's Garden of Suzhou.

    The kiosks are divided according to the plane shape, and the common ones are triangle, square and hexagon. According to the form of the roof, there are single eaves pavilion and double eaves pavilion. According to their location, there are bridge pavilions, road pavilions, well pavilions, and gallery pavilions. For example, Canglang Pavilion in Suzhou Canglang Pavilion.

    Corridors can be divided into four types from the analysis of cross sections, namely double-sided empty corridors, single-sided empty corridors, double corridors and double-layer corridors. For example, the double corridor in Suzhou Canglang Pavilion.

    Bridges can be divided into arch bridges, flat bridges, covered bridges, and curved bridges.

    The bridge can add scenery and isolate the scene, and visually expand the space.

    The garden wall is a component of the enclosed space. Chinese gardens have walls and have national characteristics. There are also leakage windows, door openings, and empty windows on the garden wall. '

    Leaking windows, lighting and ventilation, constitute a leakage scene.

    The dragon wall, meandering and rolling, is like a long dragon enclosure.

    The door is for people to come in and out to form a framed scene.

    Empty windows, lighting and ventilation, form a frame.

    6) Plaque: couplet carved stone

    Plaque: An inscription placed on the lintel.

    Couplets: vertical cards on the posts on both sides of the door.

    Carved stone: inscription lettering on mountain stone.

    Its role is: to cultivate sentiment, express chest, point scenery, add poetry to scenic spots, and enhance taste.

    5. Common means of framing in ancient Chinese gardens.

    Name: Suppressed scene, added scene, clip scene, contrast scene, frame scene, leak scene, borrow scene, shift scene.

    Tianjing and Jiajing: Tianjing talks about the relationship between the main scenery and the transition scenery; Jiajing talks about the relationship between the main scenery and the scenery on both sides. Framed scenes and leaked scenes: Leaked scenes must pass through leaked windows; framed scenes can be framed by doors, windows, holes, or tree branches. Borrowing types: remote borrowing, neighbor borrowing, borrowing, borrowing, borrowing from time to time.

    A warm reminder from the editors of the Global Online School: To avoid missing the opening time of the entrance registration for the 2020 Tourist Guide Pass Exam, you can book a SMS reminder for free service. We will notify you in a short message when the registration for the Tourist Guide Pass exam is opened in 2020. For more guide review materials, mock test questions, and real questions over the years, please click the button below to enter the question bank to download.

    share to: Edit: Pampan

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