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Psychological counselor basic training exam preparation points: basic concepts of Pavlov's theory

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    【Abstract】 We have ushered in 2020. Candidates preparing for the first half of 2020, how are you preparing for the exam now? The Global Network School Psychological Counselor's Channel has organized "Preparation Points for Psychological Counselor's Basic Training Exam: Basic Concepts of Pavlov's Doctrine". I hope it will be helpful to you.

    (A) Excitement and suppression

    Pavlov believes that the basic process of neural activity is excitement and inhibition;

    Excitement refers to the transition of neural activity from a resting state or a weaker active state to an active state or a stronger active state;

    Inhibition refers to the transition of neural activity from an active state or a stronger active state to a resting state or a weaker active state.

    Unit 3 Advanced Theory of Reflexology

    (II) Reflection, reflection arc and feedback

    Reflexes are regular responses made by the organism to internal and external environmental stimuli with the participation of the nervous system;

    The neural pathway that realizes reflex activity is called reflex arc, and it consists of five parts: receptor, afferent nerve, reflex center, efferent nerve and effector;

    Feedback is the process in which the results of reflex activity are transmitted back to the nerve center so that the nerve center can obtain information on effector activity in time, thereby more effectively regulating effector activity.

    Unconditional reflection and conditional reflection

    Unconditional reflections are reflections that animals and humans have, and that they learn without learning;

    Conditional reflection is a reflection formed by individuals based on unconditional reflection through imitation and learning;

    For the sake of distinction, we refer to the conditional reflection studied by Pavlov as classical conditional reflection, and the conditional reflection studied by Skinner as operating conditional reflection, or tool conditional reflection.

    Signal system and second signal system

    The conditional reflection formed by the actual and specific stimuli directly acting on the sensory organ for signal stimulation belongs to the signal system, and the conditional reflection caused by lights and bells belongs to the signal system;

    Conditional reflection formed by words and language as signal stimuli belongs to the second signal system, which is unique to humans.

    Basic laws of advanced neural activity

    (A) the suppression of conditioned reflection

    The presence of additional stimuli stops the conditioned reflex, called external suppression;

    When the formed conditioned reflex is no longer strengthened, the conditioned reflex will also be suppressed, called fade suppression;

    Conditional stimuli are only strengthened, and other stimuli are not strengthened. In this way, the response to other stimuli will gradually disappear. This is called differentiation inhibition.

    (II) Diffusion and concentration

    The basic form of neural processes moving in the cerebral cortex is diffusion and concentration;

    The excitement of nerve cells in a place will cause the excitement of nerve cells around it called diffusion;

    The generalization of conditioned reflexes is caused by the diffusion of neural processes. When conditioned reflexes are carried out multiple times, different stimuli are differentiated through learning and training, and differentiation is formed. Only conditioned stimuli are reacted. This is the concentration of nerve cell excitement.

    (C) mutual induction

    When a neural process is performed, it can cause the emergence of another neural process, which is called mutual induction;

    When excitement occurs in a part of the cerebral cortex, it will cause a suppression process around it, which is called negative induction;

    The process of inhibition at one site causing excitement around it is called positive induction.

    Basic laws of advanced neural activity

    (Four) dynamic shaping

    We call the cerebral cortex's response to the stereotypes of the stereotypes the dynamic stereotypes;

    Pavlov believes that dynamic stereotypes are the physiological basis of human habits. Because of various habits, people often can maintain many activities without much effort.

    Pavlov

    Soviet physiologist and member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Born in Ryazan, Russia on September 28, 1849. Studying at St. Petersburg University in 1870, studying animal physiology. He was transferred to the Military Medical College in 1875 and received his Ph.D. in 1883. In 1904, he won the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Biology for his contribution to the physiology of the digestive glands. He died in Leningrad on February 27, 1936.

    Pavlov inherited the reflection theory of R. Descartes, and was influenced by the Russian pioneer of reflexology И.М. Shechenov's book "Reflection of the Brain". Since the 1890s, he has been committed to Experimental studies of reflexive activity in animals and humans created the advanced theory of neural activity.

    Pavlov regards consciousness and behavior as reflections, that is, the regular reaction of organisms through the central nervous system to external stimuli acting on the receptors. Organisms are born, and the reflections that have fundamental significance for preserving life are called unconditional reflections; the reflections acquired on the basis of unconditional reflections are called conditional reflections. Human psychology, all intellectual activities and random movements of people are all responses to signals, and they are all conditioned reflexes. So conditioned reflex is both a physiological phenomenon and a psychological phenomenon. Pavlov explored the process of advanced neural activity and the laws of their interaction through the formation and regression of conditioned reflexes. According to Pavlov, the basic processes of advanced neural activity are excitement and inhibition. Regardless of the process of excitement and suppression, after it occurs in the two hemispheres of the brain, it must diffuse outward from the origin and then concentrate on the origin. When the excitement or inhibition occurs, the opposite neural process around the primary point can be strengthened; or after the neural process stops, the opposite neural process strengthening occurs at the primary point. This is called mutual induction, and the former is called simultaneous Induction, the latter is called sequential induction. In order to distinguish human and animal behavior, Pavlov proposed the concept of two signaling systems. The conditional reflex formed by stimulating specific things in reality belongs to the signal system and is shared by humans and animals; the conditional reflex formed by conditional stimulus with words and words belongs to the second signal system, which is unique to people. Based on years of experiments and observations, Pavlov proposed the theory of advanced neural activity types. That is, the intensity, balance, and flexibility of the two neural processes of excitement and inhibition are significantly different between individuals. According to different combinations of the three characteristics of neural processes, different types of advanced neural activities are formed. He also determined that four types are typical, which are equivalent to the four temperament types of Hippocrates. It is generally believed that Pavlov's advanced nerve types are the physiological basis of temperament types.

    A warm reminder from the editors of Global Online School: The above is the "Psychological Counselor Basic Training Exam Preparation Point: Basic Concepts of Pavlovian Doctrine" organized by the Global Online School Psychological Counselor Channel. In order to avoid missing the registration time, it is recommended that you make an appointment SMS notification Service, there will be a text message reminder. For more review materials, simulation questions and real questions over the years, please click the button below to enter the question bank to download.

    share to: Edit: Qin Yan

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