Human Resources Training Policy: Employment Situation in China
Employment has a bearing on the immediate interests of the people, and has a bearing on the overall national development and the harmony and stability of society. In recent years, the CPC Central Committee has regarded employment stabilization as the top of the "six stability" and has always placed employment work in a prominent position, maintaining employment stability and overall development stability. General Secretary Xi Jinping attaches great importance to the issue of employment, repeatedly emphasizing that "employment is the foundation of people's livelihood" and "employment is the largest people's livelihood project, popular project, and foundation project". The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee clearly stated that a sound promotion mechanism that is conducive to more adequate and higher-quality employment. Not long ago, the Central Economic Work Conference made important arrangements for employment stabilization, and the State Council issued the Opinions on Further Improving Employment Stability. This has pointed out the way forward and provided a fundamental basis for doing a good job in employment. We must grasp the employment situation scientifically and make every effort to ensure that the employment situation is stable.
I. Why in recent years
China can keep employment stable
In recent years, China has overcome the difficulties brought by the declining economic growth, maintained the continued stability of the employment situation, and achieved relatively full employment. Especially since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, various regions and departments have thoroughly studied and implemented the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping's important instructions on employment, resolutely implemented the decision-making and deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, adhered to the implementation of active employment policies, and constantly improved working mechanisms and employment Work has made positive progress.
The main manifestations are as follows: First, the scale of employment is constantly expanding. From 2013 to 2018, the number of newly-added employment in cities and towns maintained more than 13 million people for six consecutive years. At the end of 2018, the total number of employed people in the country reached 776 million, and the unemployment rate remained low. Second, the employment structure continued to be optimized. The tertiary industry's ability to absorb employment has been significantly enhanced. The proportion of employment in the three industries has been adjusted from 31.4: 30.1: 38.5 in 2013 to 26.1: 27.6: 46.3 in 2018, and an “inverted pyramid” employment structure has been formed. The third is the historic change in the urban and rural employment pattern. In 2014, the proportion of urban employees exceeded that of rural areas for the first time, accounting for 56.0% in 2018, an increase of 7.6 percentage points from 2012. Fourth, employment of key groups has remained stable. The number of fresh graduates in employment and entrepreneurship has achieved double growth year after year, and the overall employment rate has remained above 90% at the end of the year. On average, more than 5.5 million unemployed people are reemployed, and more than 1.7 million needy people are in employment. As of the end of November 2019, a total of 11.92 million poverty-stricken laborers who had set up a file had been employed to increase employment income, and 1.21 million workers who had been laid off due to de-capacity had been properly resettled. Fifth, the quality of employment has steadily improved. The employment channels of workers are more diversified, and wage income has steadily increased. The employment of enterprises is becoming more and more standardized, the legitimate rights and interests of workers are effectively maintained, the coverage of social insurance is continuously expanding, and the level of protection is gradually increasing.
In 2019, employment continued to be generally stable. It is expected that more than 13 million new jobs will be created in cities and towns throughout the year, and the surveyed unemployment rate and registered unemployment rate in the cities will be within the expected control targets.
These hard-won achievements are rooted in the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping's socialist ideas with Chinese characteristics in the new era, the implementation of a series of reform and development policies and measures, and positive factors conducive to employment stability. Constantly appear.
The strong expansion of the economic scale. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that the solution to the employment problem depends on development. Make the economic development cake bigger and the employment cake bigger. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, we have insisted on stabilizing and expanding employment as the lower limit of a reasonable range of economic operations. We have innovated and implemented macro-control methods such as interval control, directional control, and precise control to stabilize economic growth and consolidate the basic employment structure. At present, China's economy maintains a steady and healthy development trend, is still in the mid-high-speed growth range, and is still in the forefront of the world. The economic aggregate continues to increase, and the ability to stimulate employment is correspondingly increased, which has led to the continuous expansion of employment capacity.
Promotion of industrial structure optimization. If economic development is the "locomotive" for expanding employment, then a reasonable economic structure is the "accelerator" that drives employment. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have unswervingly promoted high-quality development, advanced supply-side structural reforms, and expanded new space for employment growth with the improvement of quality and efficiency. Vigorously develop modern service industries such as e-commerce and service outsourcing, and fully explore the great potential contained in the process of new industrialization, informatization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization; resolutely resolve excess capacity and reduce backward capacity; and jointly promote the first in the east, the rise of the central region, and the west Development and the revitalization of the "four major sectors" of the Northeast, accelerating the implementation of the "One Belt and One Road" construction, the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, focusing on promoting the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and ecological protection of the Yellow River Basin High-quality development. The industrial, urban, rural, and regional structures have been further optimized, and employment elasticity for economic growth has continued to increase.
The release of the reform bonus has helped to expand the main employment channels. Individual and private economies and small and micro enterprises have increasingly become the main channels for absorbing employment. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, simplified administration, decentralization, decentralization, and optimization of services have continued to advance. The effectiveness of the government has been further optimized, which has strongly supported the transformation of economic momentum and created a good environment for promoting innovation and entrepreneurship. At the same time, mass entrepreneurship and innovation support have been increasing, fiscal support policies have been strengthened, inclusive tax measures have been continuously improved, and financing models have been further optimized and innovated. "Double innovation" has become an upsurge of the times, the market vitality has been rushing forward, the main players in the market have sprung up, creating a lot of job opportunities, and the multiplier effect of entrepreneurship driving employment has continued to appear. In the first 10 months of 2019, the average daily number of newly registered enterprises in China was 19,700, and new enterprises created provided many new employment opportunities.
The exertion of policy effects promotes employment of key groups. Strong and effective policies and measures are an important support for making up for market shortages, stabilizing, and expanding employment. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, we have continuously developed and improved a positive employment policy system in accordance with the development of the situation and the new expectations of workers. Make overall plans to optimize the supply of human resources and improve the demand of the labor market, strengthen the synergy between employment policies and economic policies, industrial policies, and social policies, and closely integrate employment and entrepreneurship; The longitude and latitude lines, focusing on the employment bottom line of people with employment difficulties, while focusing on improving the policy system for employment and entrepreneurship of affected workers in the reform process and the poor workers in the construction of a well-off society; adjusting and increasing some of the employment subsidy standards, expanding the scope of employment subsidies, and innovation New measures for benefiting the people, such as start-up funds, job-seeking subsidies, and start-up subsidies, were launched. In November 2018, in order to cope with the impact of changes in the external environment on employment, the State Council issued new policies to promote employment, played a "combination boxing" policy that stabilized enterprises and positions, strengthened training to promote employment, and emphasized the bottom line of services, further enriching and improving Employment policy system. The Central Economic Working Conference held at the end of 2018 clearly put forward the implementation of the employment priority policy. The 2019 government work report clearly requires that the employment priority policy be fully developed, and for the first time, consider the employment priority policy at the macro policy level. The employment policy system with Chinese characteristics has become an important weapon for stabilizing the situation and helping development.
How to look at it
The current and future employment situation
At present and in the future, China's inherent contradictions in the field of employment still exist, new influencing factors are still increasing, there are still many shortcomings and weaknesses in the advancement of work, China's employment situation is more complicated and severe, and employment tasks are more difficult and arduous.
Looking at the total, employment pressures still exist. The working-age population of 16-59 years old in China has decreased since 2012, and this trend will continue, and the decline will accelerate after 2020. However, it must be seen that this decrease is a slowdown in the high supply level, and due to factors such as education, the working-age population's time to enter the labor market is relatively lagging behind. At the end of 2018, China's working-age population is still close to 900 million, and it is expected that the working-age population will remain at about 800 million by 2035. In recent years, there are more than 15 million newly-increased laborers who need to work in cities and towns. In addition to the nearly 10 million registered unemployed people in cities and towns, the average annual labor force who needs to work in cities is about 25 million people. Moreover, in the process of urbanization, there is still an increase in rural labor transfer and employment.
From a structural perspective, employment contradictions are even more prominent. In the process of economic restructuring and industrial transformation and upgrading, structural employment contradictions have become more prominent, which is manifested in the coexistence of "difficult employment" and "difficult employment." On the one hand, companies report that it is difficult to recruit workers. The recruitment rate for skilled talent has been above 1.5, and ordinary front-line workers are also facing shortages. On the other hand, some newly-growing youth groups such as college graduates have employment difficulties, and it is more difficult for older unemployed people to re-employ during structural adjustments such as capacity reduction. The root cause of this "dilemma" is the mismatch between labor demand and supply, which is the concentrated expression of structural problems of imbalanced and inadequate economic development in the employment field. From the demand side, China is still in the middle and low end of industrialization and the industrial chain. Most of the jobs added in the market are ordinary workers and waiters in the manufacturing and service industries. From the perspective of the supply side, new graduates each year graduate from middle and high schools. More than half of the students have been born, and the post-80s and 90s new generations have occupied the main body. The new generation of job seekers pay more attention to career development, working conditions and self-realization, and there is a mismatch between supply and demand. In addition, we must also see that, relative to the rapid changes in industry and technology, human change is a slow variable. Achieving career change requires a certain amount of education and training, and it takes longer to change the concept of employment.
From the perspective of key groups, the task of youth employment is arduous. Youth employment is a worldwide problem, and China is no exception. The pressure on youth employment, mainly of college graduates, will remain outstanding. During the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, the average annual scale of college graduates in China will exceed 8 million people, plus about 5 million secondary vocational students, and the scale of youth employment will continue to expand. At the same time, the contradiction between the persistently high supply of college graduates and the lack of effective jobs has become apparent. At present, China is still in the stage of transformation and development from the low end of the industrial chain to the middle and high end, and there are not enough positions suitable for college graduates in the market. Some graduates have significant gaps in their professional skills, innovation and entrepreneurship, and market and enterprise employment needs. There are coexistences of "difficult employment" and "difficult employment."
From the external environment, new factors are increasing. At present, the risks and challenges at home and abroad have increased significantly, and the downward pressure on the domestic economy has increased, which will inevitably have an impact on corporate employment and the labor market. According to the monitoring and investigation, the employment situation has remained generally stable, but the pressure to stabilize jobs in some regions and industries has increased. At the same time, the impact of "machine substitution" must be closely monitored. In recent years, with the rapid development of artificial intelligence technology and the difficulty of recruiting ordinary workers in the labor market, some companies have accelerated the promotion of "machine substitution". The jobs being replaced are mostly repetitive and process work, mainly line operators, front-line customer service, etc. Jobs that require relatively low education and skills. In the future, China ’s industry will accelerate towards the mid-to-high end, and the pace of “machine replacement” will further accelerate. The number of affected jobs will continue to increase, the process will accelerate, and the post structure will undergo profound changes. Some workers will inevitably face the pain of being laid off .
At present, the awareness of the importance of employment in some localities and departments needs to be improved, and the goal orientation of employment priority needs to be further enhanced. The progress of work in various places is uneven, and the implementation of policies needs to be strengthened. The basic level of public employment services needs to be consolidated, and the informationization of employment services needs to be improved. With the vigorous development of new kinetic energy and the emergence of new employment patterns, employment service management, employment systems and social security policies need to be reformed and improved. China's industry is still at the low and mid-end levels, and the contradiction of employment imbalances and unsmooth flows under the dual structure still exists. It takes hard work to create sufficient high-quality employment opportunities.
Challenges exist objectively, but at the same time we must recognize that there are still many positive factors to ensuring a stable employment situation. The strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping's thoughts on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, and the institutional and institutional advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics will provide fundamental guarantees for meeting employment challenges. The Central Committee of the CPC and the State Council reviewed the situation, implemented employment priority policies, strengthened the leadership of employment organizations, promoted the implementation of major measures such as tax reduction and fee reduction, and assisted enterprises in stabilizing posts, strengthened employment services and vocational training, and continuously enriched policy toolboxes and capital preparations. Stable employment situation provides strong support. The basic trend of China's economic stability and long-term improvement remains unchanged. The characteristics of good resilience, full potential, and large room for manoeuvre are obvious. New kinetic energy is in the ascendant, the service industry is rapidly developing, and rural revitalization is promising. It will expand more new employment opportunities. . The shortage of enterprises still exists, and the labor market has some room for manoeuvre. As long as we give full play to these positive factors and do our own business unswervingly, we can create a new situation in employment in responding to risk challenges.
Keeping the employment situation stable for a long time
What needs to be done
In a big country with a population of nearly 1.4 billion and a labor force of 900 million, it is always a major strategic issue to continuously expand employment, create more jobs, and enable workers to achieve decent work and comprehensive development. We will increase the implementation of the employment priority policy, stabilize the total employment, improve the employment structure, improve the quality of employment, do a good job of the employment of key groups, and ensure that zero-employment families are dynamically cleared.
Give priority to employment. Improve the goal-oriented priority mechanism, take stability and expansion of employment as the lower limit of interval regulation, take employment as the priority goal of economic development, and incorporate it into the macro-regulation system for precise regulation and camera regulation. Improve the macro-policy linkage mechanism, promote industrial, fiscal and taxation, finance, trade, education, social security and other policies to stabilize and promote the comprehensive development of employment, promote economic growth and expand the virtuous circle of employment. Improve the employment impact assessment mechanism, evaluate the impact on employment in the implementation of major policies, major projects and important special actions, and simultaneously formulate diversion resettlement plans involving workers.
Efforts will be made to reduce burdens and stabilize enterprises and employment. We will do a good job in the areas of "drop, return, and make up", accelerate the implementation of various beneficial enterprise measures, and give enterprises more sense of gain. "Decrease" is to implement a comprehensive plan to reduce social insurance rates, continue to strengthen research and supervision, and evaluate the effect of implementation in a timely manner to ensure that the actual burden of corporate social security contributions has dropped substantially and stabilized corporate development expectations. "Return" is to implement the unemployment insurance return policy, and continue to increase support for job stabilization for enterprises that do not lay off fewer workers. "Supplement" focuses on hiring workers for employment in eligible enterprises, implementing policies such as increasing the discount rate for start-up guarantee loans, increasing tax deductions, and timely giving social security subsidies. At the same time, strengthen the employment guidance service for enterprises, support the implementation of inter-company employment adjustments, alleviate the recruitment difficulties, encourage enterprises to improve the employment environment and salary treatment, and stabilize the workforce.
Focus on promoting entrepreneurship and actively promoting employment. Strengthen policy support, increase tax incentives, secured loans, capital subsidies, entrepreneurship training and other implementation efforts, support college graduates, returning rural migrant workers and other entrepreneurship, and support professional and technical personnel of colleges and scientific research institutes to leave their posts and start businesses. Strengthen entrepreneurial services, enhance the service capabilities of public employment and entrepreneurial service agencies, support the establishment of various entrepreneurial incubation bases and parks, and carry out activities such as entrepreneurial service display exchanges and entrepreneurship contests. Create a good entrepreneurial environment, expedite the clearance and elimination of various industry, regional, and operational barriers that hinder entrepreneurship, relax market access restrictions, and simplify project approval, approval, and certification procedures. At the same time, we will increase support for new employment forms and improve policies such as social security for employees in new employment forms.
Efforts will be made to promote vocational skills upgrading and improve the employability of workers. Implement a series of subsidies and support policies for on-the-job employees, transfer employees from difficult enterprises, employment key groups, poor labor, etc .; and implement support policies and measures for enterprises, technical colleges, vocational colleges, and training institutions to support business development. On-the-job transfer training, well-developed employment and entrepreneurship training for various key groups, strengthened the skills training of the poor labor force who set up files, and promoted the wide coverage of the training target. Widely mobilize the enthusiasm of all parties, make good use of and increase the funds for special accounts for operations, simplify the application process for subsidies, and guide all parties to undertake large-scale training. Continuously improve the quality of training, explore a system for the compilation and release of urgently needed talents, promote the integration of engineering and learning, school-enterprise cooperation, improve the training performance evaluation system, and support the construction of training bases.
Efforts will be made to strengthen all-round employment services and raise the level of employment services. A sound public employment service network covering provinces, cities, counties, sub-districts (towns), and communities (villages) will be provided, and targeted public employment services such as policy consultation, information release, job introduction, and career guidance will be provided. Actively promote the standardization and information construction of public employment services, establish and improve a service standard system, promote intelligent services, build a unified national service information platform, and comprehensively promote "Internet + public employment services." Promote convenience services, simplify and optimize service processes, and promote convenience measures such as “run at most once”. Organize a series of public employment service activities to build distinctive service brands such as "Spring Action" and "Golden Autumn Recruitment Month" for different workers, and strive to achieve "monthly recruitment, monthly employment services". At the same time, strengthen labor market supervision and severely crack down on illegal employment, gender discrimination and other infringements.
Efforts will be made to promote the employment of key groups and to secure the bottom line of people's livelihood. Continue to take the employment of college graduates as the top priority, in-depth implementation of employment promotion, entrepreneurial guidance, and grassroots growth plans, implement the information account books of college graduates who have not yet left the university, focus on special activities, promote precision recruitment platforms, and organize Carry out employment apprenticeships and continue to guide college graduates to find employment in urban and rural grassroots, central and western regions, hard and remote areas, and small and medium-sized enterprises. Focus on the most difficult to establish a file and build a concentrated poverty labor force, comprehensively improve the degree of organization of labor services, focus on policies, funds, training, etc. for the poor labor force, and strive to do a good job in the “three regions and three states” Relocation of centralized resettlement sites for employment assistance work, strengthen the targeted effectiveness of vocational skills training, and promote the employment of poor labor income. We will increase assistance to the unemployed, especially those with employment difficulties, continue to provide “one-on-one” assistance to those with employment difficulties, and use public welfare posts to help, to ensure that zero-employment families are dynamically cleared.
(Author: Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of Communications)
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